There are a number of exceptions in copyright law, which allow limited uses of copyright works without the permission of the copyright owner. Normally permission is not needed if using less than a substantial part of a copyright protected work.
The following list of exceptions is not exhaustive and particular care should be taken if intending to rely on an exception:
- non-commercial research and private study;
- criticism, review and reporting current events;
- teaching in educational establishments;
- helping visually impaired people;
- time shifting;
- material used in legal proceedings.
Certain exceptions require giving sufficient acknowledgment when making use of a copyright protected work.